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GEOCODEs are used by PANGAEA to geo-reference the origin of data values in space and time on earth. In the data numeric and data text tables of Pangaea, each value is geo-referenced, using some of the geocodes listed below. In the parameter table geocodes are written in capital letters. They are defined as float values and thus can be configured to any precision (exception: DATE/TIME is defined as a Datum-field). The geocode includes the third dimension where and in which medium the value was measured.

Most important and mandatory geocodes for georeferenced data are the geographical coordinates (ID in brackets, examples by DOI):

  • LATITUDE (1600)
  • LONGITUDE (1601)
    • For data sets from a single location the coordinated latitude and longitude are defined through the event doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.133415 .
    • For data sets from many locations or horizontal profiles a fully georeferenced data set is imported, which contains the coordinates (in decimal degree) for each line in two columns.

Any publication based on data from the earth system must include the positions of observations and/or sampling.

Reference: More researchers must record the latitude and longitude of their data. Nature 2008 doi:10.1038/453002a .

For the third spatial dimension the system provides different options. Several geocodes can be combined in one data set.

  • DEPTH, depending on the origin of the data use:
  • ELEVATION [m] (8128) for samples taken on the earth surface, relative to sea level (above s.l. + positive, below s.l. - negative)
  • ALTITUDE [m] (4607) for measurements in meter above sea level, i.e. in the air; example: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.385121
  • HEIGHT above ground [m] (56349) for measurements in meter above ground (not above sea level)

For georeferenced experimental data use:

  • DEPTH, sediment, experiment [m] (120637) for experiments in sediment environments
  • DEPTH, water, experiment [m] (120638) for experiments in the water column, e.i., mesocosm data doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.810331

The following are not real spatial geocodes, but may be used to force data in a certain order:

  • DISTANCE [cm] (2920) relative measure in an object, e.g. coral, tree, shell, nodule
  • POINT DISTANCE from start [m] (26097) relative distance along a horizontal transect
  • SECTION, height [m] (25539) relative height of a vertical profile
  • ORDINAL NUMBER (6262) may be used, if no third dimension is given and samples should just be kept in order.

A data set can only have one vertical spatial geocode but may also have a time geocode:

  • AGE [kyr] (2205) for geological ages
    • Age, minimum/young (6167) and
    • Age maximum/old (6168) are NOT geocodes but may be used if a time span needs to be defined more precisely.
  • DATE/TIME (1599) for time series.
    • import date/time format follows the ISO-standard 8601 yyyy-MM-ddThh:mm:ss
    • export format follows the ISO-standard 8601; example: 2006-02-18T14:45:41. Any fraction of the full ISO can be defined on the config card of a data set in the format menue (see table below).

For the import of events, date and time are in two fields and should have the format as defined through the operating system. When importing data sets, date/time are given in one field/column (headed by the ID 1599) and may have any valid format. DATE/TIME is defined as a date/time-field and thus any format will be accepted and automatically converted to ISO.

The following additional date-parameters are NOT geocodes but may be used if more date/time fields are required, e.g. to define a time span. Those are also ISO-format.

  • Date/time start (152460) and
  • Date/time end (150986)
  • Date (152481)

List of Date/Time formats available in 4D/Data sets/Config card

Format in 4D (data sets/config) Export Explanation
yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm 2007-04-07T13:45
yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss 2007-04-07T13:45:12
yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss.SSS 2007-04-07T13:45:12.346
yyyy-MM 2007-04
yyyy-MM-dd 2007-04-07
yyyy-'W'ww-dd 2007-W14-07 week of the year
yyyy-'W'ww 2007-W14
yyyy-'Q'q 2007-Q2 quarter of the year
HH:mm:ss 13:45:12 time only
HH:mm:ss.SSS 13:45:12.346
yyyy 2007 year
q 2 quarter
MM 04 month
ww 14 week
dd 07 day
DDD 097 day of the year
E Sat weekday
HH 13 hour only
mm 45 minute only
ss 12 second only
SSS 346 decimal sec only

The list of GEOCODEs can be downloaded from Pangaea in html or text format.