Page content (please note)
Please note, bathymetry data curation SOPs in PANGAEA with respect to FAIR data principles (https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2016.18) are currently revised within the scope of of the German Marine Research Alliance (DAM) Underway research data project (https://www.allianz-meeresforschung.de/). This page and the information provided here is adressed to PANGAEA users and data submitters. PANGAEA's Metaheader (https://wiki.pangaea.de/wiki/Metaheader) explicitly for bathymetry datasets and other data curation requirements are explained on this page. In addition, data management at PANGAEA and requirements for bathymetry data submission to PANGAEA are documented.
“Please note, that this page may still be revised in the future"
DAM Underway research data project background
The German Marine Research Alliance (DAM) is a combined effort to exploit the full potential of German research vessels as mobile measuring platforms and currently involves 19 institutions and research facilities in Germany. The Underway research data project is part of DAM core area data management and digitalization (https://www.allianz-meeresforschung.de/en/activities/data-management-and-digitisation/).
DAM data portal
All submitted bathymetry data (raw data & processed data) are being semi-automatically processed at PANGAEA. Tracklines and coverage polygones (footprint) of all submitted bathymetry data are extracted from the data and added to the DAM data portal https://marine-data.org/,, if data have a CC BY 4.0 (or CC-ZERO) data licence. If data are not under a moratorium period, also a raster image is being calculated and added to the DAM portal. Here, the data can be explored (and are linked to the DOI). These raster images are then also available through OGC Web Map services.
Standardized content of datasets
To make data findable (F) and due to PANGAEAs archiving SOPs, bathymetry datasets from multibeam echosounders will be separated into two datasets, if the water column information (e.g. wcd files from Kongsbergs MBES Systems) is simultaneously being recorded during data acquisition.
This is necessary due to data curation processes, consequently reducing the download volume if it is intended to download only bathymetry data (containing only the seafloor reflector information) from PANGAEA. The water column data are usually much larger than regular bathymetry files (e.g. .all). However, both datasets will be connected / linked to each other, making it easy to find the corresponding dataset).
To make data FAIR, “to speak” a common language is required. PANGAEA specifically uses for bathymetry data the Natural Environment Research Council's Data (NERC) Catalogue for describing data. https://www.bodc.ac.uk/resources/inventories/nerc_data_catalogue/ https://vocab.seadatanet.org/search
The Authorship of (national/German) datasets is currently revised with respect to the Guidelines for Safeguarding Good Research Practice of the German Research Foundation https://www.dfg.de/download/pdf/foerderung/rechtliche_rahmenbedingungen/gute_wissenschaftliche_praxis/kodex_gwp_en.pdf. (more information is provided as soon as possible.....)
To ensure the reusability (R) and interoperability (I) of datasets, metadata of similar datasets such as bathymetry data gathered from similar research missions, research vessels or research platforms should follow a common template and a common vocabulary (Generally speaking; they should look alike!). This also includes the title. Therefore, the title of bathymetry data which are entrusted to PANGAEA shall follow a certain template “construction kit”. This “construction kit” was developed within the DAM efforts (Project Underway research data). It includes the feedback of several German scientists from different institutions, PANGAEA bathymetry data submitters & data management personal. Key elements of each dataset title are incorporated, such as data type, device, platform type, platform, cruise (& area). To guarantee and fulfil FAIR standards, PANGAEA is encouraging data submitters to follow this template (also covering none German research data).
Multibeam bathymetry raw data (EM 1002 echosounder entire dataset) of RV MARIA S. MERIAN during cruise MSM55
Multibeam bathymetry raw data (Kongsberg EM122 working area dataset) of RV METEOR during cruise M127, Fictional Bank canyon, North Atlantic Ocean
The “construction kit” - incorporating all feedback - is shown below.:
|select data type:||select data level:||(device according to L22 vocabulary "Alt label" (NERC*)||select:||of||select platform type:||platform name (capital letters):||during cruise||Cruise ID||optional: IHO-IOC GEBCO undersea feature name)||optional: IHO Sea Area (1953),|
|Multibeam bathymetry||raw data||entire dataset)||"||RV||"|
|Sidescan sonar||processed data||transit dataset)||"||AUV||"|
|Water column||working area dataset)||"||ROV||"|
|*only for processed data||"||"|
Further information about the entries can be found here:
|(device according to L22 vocabulary "Alt label" (seadatanet)||optional: IHO-IOC GEBCO undersea feature name)||optional: IHO Sea Area (1953),|
|Multibeam bathymetry||raw data||(Kongsberg EM 122||working area dataset)||of||RV||SONNE||during cruise||SO250||Loyd Dill Seamount,||South Pacific Ocean|
|Multibeam bathymetry||raw data||(Atlas Hydrosweep DS 3 echo sounder||transit dataset)||of||RV||SONNE||during cruise||SO250|
|Multibeam bathymetry||raw data||(R2Sonic SONIC 2024||entire dataset)||of||AUV||ABYSS||during cruise||MSM50|
|Multibeam bathymetry||processed data||(Kongsberg EM 122||entire dataset)||of||RV||METEOR||during cruise||M74|
|Multibeam bathymetry||processed data||(EM 120 echosounder||dataset compilation)||of||RV||METEOR & RV MARIA S. MERIAN||during cruise||M74 & MSM66||,Sardino-Balearic Abyssal Plain||,Mediterranean Sea|
|Water column||raw data||(Kongsberg EM710||entire dataset)||of||RV||MARIA S. MERIAN||during cruise||MSM66||,South Pacific Ocean|
Intending to make data more FAIR, PANGAEA requires a compact Abstract for each dataset. For more information regarding abstracts, see https://wiki.pangaea.de/wiki/Abstract.
Please note that cruise summary reports or other reference must not be cited exclusively in the abstract because references are also included in the metaheader (references) of the dataset. However, to provide credit and cite e.g. raw data if processed data are submitted to PANGAEA, you might add to the abstract: "Raw data for this study were published open access (Authors, YYYY)." (followed by the full citation of the dataset in the list of references). If reference shall be linked, please inform the data editor.
If you would like to provide other contact information related to this dataset (e.g. Email address), please inform the data editor.
Please specify in the abstract whether sound velocity profiles are part of the raw dataset publication or not. Comparatively for processed data publications, please describe your processing steps.
Raw data (example)
Multibeam bathymetry raw data using the ship's own Kongsberg EM 122 multibeam echosounder was not continuously recorded during RV MARIA S. MERIAN cruise MSM97/2. Data were recorded on 3 days between 2020-12-16 and 2020-12-19 in the Norwegian Sea and data acquisition was almost continuously monitored during the survey. Previous to the survey, gaps in already existing database were identified using the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO 2020) Type Identifier (TID) grid. These gaps were used as a base to determine the course of the ship during the cruise. During data acquisition, sound velocity measurements using sound velocity profiles (SVP) derived from CTD casts was applied on the data for data calibration. Ancillary SVP raw data (.asvp files) and SVP from CTD-cast (.txt) are part of this dataset publication.
Data are unprocessed and therefore may contain incorrect depth measurements without further processing. Data can be processed e.g. with the open source software package MB-System (Caress, D. W., and D. N. Chayes, MB-System: Mapping the Seafloor, http://www.mbari.org/products/research-software/mb-system/, 2017).
(FEEL FREE TO ADD MORE INFORMATION)
Processed data (example)
Swath sonar bathymetry data used for that dataset was recorded during RV METEOR cruise M127 using Kongsberg EM 122 multibeam echosounder. The cruise took place between 25.05.2016 and 28.06.2016 in the North Atlanic Ocean. To enhance MBES data accuracy, two sound velocity profile casts were conducted in the vicinity of the working area prior to the survey using sound velocity profiler AML Oceanographic. After processing, these data were directly imported into the MBES Acquisition software Kongsberg SIS Seafloor Information System. Raw data were being converted to MB-System format. Data were manually edited for false measurements. No further sound velocity profile were used during processing of this dataset. A raster was calculated and stored in GeoTIFF format with a 25m resolution (negative values).
(FEEL FREE TO ADD MORE INFORMATION)
Standardized usage of Reference
Typically, processed datasets, which are all based of the same raw dataset (also archived in PANGAEA), are submitted to PANGAEA. These datasets will be linked to each other as a Reference Currently, all bathymetry datasets already archived in PANGAEA are reviewed and checked for relations. If a relationship is found, a linkage between both datasets is being created and is shown as Related to. More information can be found here https://wiki.pangaea.de/wiki/Reference
Coverage is an automatic entry into PANGAEA calculated from Events or PANGAEA GEOCODE (see below): https://wiki.pangaea.de/wiki/Metaheader. Please note, that Minimum Elevation und Maximum Elevation does not represent min / max depth values measured from MBES data contained in this dataset. It is rather in this case the reference height on earth from the instrument used for the measurements.
Note: Currently, the Coverage will be visible on PANGAEA website with points having an GoogleMaps image in the background (right upper corner). It does not show the actual coverage of the surveyed area. The visible points are, instead, representing the Events (see below).
Standardized usage of Events
Bathymetry datasets contain so called PANGAEA Events (https://wiki.pangaea.de/wiki/Event). The Event links to the scientific Campaign and Basis (platform) containing further additional information. Please note that, if you browse with your mouse cursor on Campaign or Basis, a field will pop up (do not click). In some datasets, it is possible to click on these fields and a link with detailed information will be provided.
Further information for Bathymetry related events is given below.
(update of this section is in progress)
For bathymetry data from multbeam echosounders, a so called "Underway" Event is created on board of the research vessel. The "Underway" Event is named CruiseID_0_Underway-number(undefined, ) e.g. M127_0_Underway-1. The event shows the starting and end point (coordinates & datetime) of the first and last data record of the MBES device acquired during the cruise. Also, the Methods/device used to record the data is included for Event description. Please note, that PANGAEA specific vocabulary is used here. Providing further detailed information using standard common vocabulary such as the NERC catalogue (https://www.bodc.ac.uk/resources/inventories/nerc_data_catalogue/) is currently being prepared (more information is provided as soon as possible.....).
If available, an additional link to the Sensor description hosted on https://sensor.awi.de is provided.
If the dataset is compilation of many datasets (only possible for processed data), several "Underway" Events will be used.
Note, that the prefix of the Event name contains the official cruise ID (cruise label, e.g. https://www.pangaea.de/expeditions/bybasis/Meteor%20%281986%29), not the campaign name. The suffix number does not follow any specific rule, as this number is usually chronologically created on board, which is why the numbering can differ from cruise to cruise.
If SVP casts (sound velocity profile measurements using an external device, e.g. using an AML Oceanographic Plus X sound velocity probe) or CTD casts (sound velocity derived from CTD measurements) were performed during the cruise, the acquired data files (and used for import to the acquisition software, e.g. the Kongsberg Seafloor Information, SIS) will be stored in the same raw dataset.
Standardized usage of Parameter
Which PANGAEA parameter (https://wiki.pangaea.de/wiki/Parameter) for bathymetry datasets will be used & added to the data files, depend on whether raw or processed data are being submitted.
Raw data curation
Standard parameters for bathymetry raw data also include PANGAEA’s so called Geocodes (https://wiki.pangaea.de/wiki/Geocode). These are standard important parameters, which are mandatory to keep the data georeferenced. These metadata for each file will be automatically created while data curation process Metadata are extracted using the open soruce software package MB-System (Caress, D. W., and D. N. Chayes, MB-System: Mapping the Seafloor, http://www.mbari.org/products/research-software/mb-system/, 2021). .
|Binary Object (Media Type)||Binary (Type)|
|Binary Object (File Size)||Binary (Size)||Bytes|
|Kongsberg datagram raw file name||Datagram rfn||please note, this is a future development (only for data from EM Series)|
|Data file recording duration||Data record duration||min|
|Data file recording distance||Data record distance||m|
|Ship speed||Ship sp||knots|
|Number of pings||Pings|
|Start of data file recording, date/time||File start date/time|
|Start of data file recording, latitude||File start latitude|
|Start of data file recording, longitude||File start longitude|
|Start of data file, heading||Start heading|
|Start of data file, depth||Start depth|
|Stop of data file recording, date/time||File stop date/time|
|Stop of data file recording, latitude||File stop latitude|
|Stop of data file recording, longitude||File stop longitude|
|Stop of data file, heading||Stop heading|
|Stop of data file, depth||Stop depth|
|DATE/TIME||Date/Time||Geocode – copy of 'Start of data file recording, date/time'|
|LATITUDE||Latitude||Geocode – copy of 'Start of data file recording, latitude'|
|LONGITUDE||Longitude||Geocode – copy of 'Start of data file recording, longitude'|
|ELEVATION||Elevation||Geocode – copy of 'File start depth, change of sign'|
(more information (and more additional parameters) is provided as soon as possible.....).
Processed data curation
Standard important parameters, which are mandatory to keep the data georeferenced and described, will partially be attached automatically in near future during the data curation process. Nevertheless, for raster data if you could provide a table template during your submission, describing these parameters for each uploaded file, this would support the data curation process. Feel free to upload a bathymetry grid, backscatter and/or a sidescan image. In general, GeoTiff files are preferred. Please indicated whether depth values of the grid cells contain positive or negative values (this can be indicated in the file content description).
If you want to upload only xyz files (point cloud data) to PANGAEA, you are welcome to do so. However, at best, please also upload an auxiliary gridded raster image. In general raster data are more user-friendly (e.g. by using GIS-systems), therefore raster images are of high value for scientist. Raster images are cosidered as a (FAIR) interoprable data format. Raster image and point cloud data will be published using the same doi.
Parameters for raster data are listet below:
|Event label||Event||-||*automated entry|
|Binary Object||Binary||*this will in PANGAEA download URL, please add the file name here|
|Binary Object (Media Type)||Binary (Type)||-||*automated entry|
|Binary Object (File Size)||Binary (Size)||-||*automated entry|
|Raster cell size||Raster cell size|
|Vertical datum||Vertical datum|
|Horizontal datum||Horizontal datum|
|Longitude, westbound||Longitude west|
|Longitude, eastbound||Longitude east|
|Latitude, southbound||Latitude south|
|Latitude, northbound||Latitude north|
(more information is provided as soon as possible.....)
Standardized usage of Comment
Bathymetry raw and processed data, which are acquired on scientific vessels, might contain erroneous depth values and/or data artifacts. These data shall never be used for navigational purposes involving safety at sea. For safety reasons, it is widely common to state this explicitly: The comment These data should not be used for navigational purposes will be automatically included as a comment on each bathymetry dataset in PANGAEA. Please also check the PANGAEA data policy for more information: https://wiki.pangaea.de/wiki/Data_policy (page currently under construction). Bathymetry data for official nautical chart production must explicitly fulfil the requirements of the International Hydrographic Organisation (IHO) https://iho.int/.
PANGAEA and DAM are encouraging data submitters to submit bathymetry data under CC-BY 4.0 License terms, which allows sharing (copying and redistributing the material in any medium or format) and adapting (remixing, transforming, and building upon the material) the data (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). In this way, PANGAEA / DAM can also make the data coverage (footprint) and the trackline visible with a direct link to PANGAEA at https://marine-data.de/ in the future. Note, within the DAM efforts, coverage (footprint) and trackline off all submitted bathymetry data will be made available to the community via OGC Web Map Services (WMS). Avoid licence CC-0 & CC-BY-SA, if possible.
Which CC license choose for data? Check also https://wiki.pangaea.de/wiki/License
(Standardized usage of Data model extensions) (for raw and processed data curation)
The usage of so-called data model extensions which are further attributes is currently developed. This is a new feature for PANGAEA in order to include more standardized metadata. This new feature shall insure further findabilty (F) and interoperability(I) of the datasets (more information is provided as soon as possible.....).
Damaske, Daniel; Becker, Marius (2021): Multibeam bathymetry raw data (Kongsberg EM 122 entire dataset) of RV MARIA S. MERIAN during cruise MSM97/2. PANGAEA, https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.927786
https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.912259 (Please note, this is a test dataset, dataset currently in review status, therefore not fully accessible, example is also out of date...please wait to a good example)
How to submit data bathymetry data to PANGAEA and what to do?
Please submit bathymetry data here https://www.pangaea.de/submit/. During submission, you may have to provide information for the data curation process (e.g. cruise, device, etc) (more information is provided as soon as possible; you may be asked to fill out a questionnaire during data curation). Please edit/modify the title & abstract as stated above for the submission.
Usually for raw data, an upload area will be created for you where you can drop your files (on request). Feel free to drop your data as zip- or individual files. Please also include sound velocity profiles (only SVP raw data, e.g. MSM88_2-1_0.asvp) for raw data submission if available. Your files should not exceed a volume of 10GB, however several files can be uploaded simultaneously.
For processed data you can use this excel file to prepare your submission template. This will highly support the data curation process. If additional SVP have been used for data processing, you can also upload these files.
PANGAEA Data Submission Form Example
|Field Name||Explanation||Content Example|
|Title||Adapted, generalized #Standardized_Title||Multibeam bathymetry raw data (Kongsberg EM122 entire dataset) of RV SONNE during cruise SO250|
|Author(s)||#Standardized_Authors||[chief scientist], [responsible scientist(s)]|
|Abstract/Describe your Data||#Standardized_Abstract; if the processed or raw data were already archived, the links may be placed here||The survey data contain MBES measurements of the Fictional Bank canyon. No bathymetric measurements of Fictional Bank canyon were found in international databases prior to the cruise.
To enhance MBES data accuracy, two sound velocity profile casts were conducted in the vicinity of the working area prior to the survey using sound velocity profiler AML Oceanographic SVP Plus X. After processing, these data were directly imported into the MBES acquisition software Kongsberg SIS Seafloor Information System.
|License||#Licence The license specifies how the record can be used and modified after publication and how it must be cited by re-users. The use of the license CC-BY 4.0 is strongly recommended by PANGAEA and DAM, ensuring the re-usability of the Underway Data and the credit for the author(s).||CC-BY: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (default)|
|Data used/published in the following article/manuscript||If the data is/will be published in a manuscript, please enter the details here||(default)|
|Projects and/or Awards/Grants||The project in which the data has been obtained may be named here||DAM: Underway Research Data|
|Upload||Files containing metadata information for the data|