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This page provides information on the requirements for submitting, archiving and publishing Conductivity, Temperature, Depth Sonde (CTD) Data to ensure fulfilling the FAIR data principles.

Standardized Meta-Information

The following information needs to be included in any Data submission at PANGAEA. To start a data submission at PANGAEA go to https://www.pangaea.de/submit/ . Further information on the ticket system used for communication and documentation during the processing of the data submission can be found in this wiki.

Workflow: Processing of a Data Submission

List of Authors

Usually, the list of authors should contain the scientist responsible for the sampling device, the chief scientist and the PI, the contact person responsible for the data.

Dataset Title

The title should ideally reflect what has been measured, observed, or calculated, when, where, and how. If applicable, the title of the data publication should be generalized and is defined by the specific [ship], [cruise] and [device].


In general, a generalized Abstract is mandatory to each dataset regarding [ship], [cruise] and certain peculiarities. For more information on what needs to be included in a PANGAEA data publication abstract see this page.


Several references may be of importance for the dataset.

Cruise Report

If a Cruise Report is available it is sometimes already archived at the Technische Informationsbibliothek and might be linked to the dataset (see this example).

Data Processing Report

If a Data Processing Report exists, it contains information on processing and quality control procedures. It enables to reproduce the processed data from raw data. The preferred format for submission is pdf (see this example).

Currently, the Data Processing Reports are being archived at PANGAEA; A long-term solution will include the assignment of a doi for each Data Processing Report.

Linking between Processed and Raw Data

If possible, the raw data should be linked to the processed dataset and vice versa. This link may lead to an external source, but it may also be an PANGAEA-internal link.

Additional Data Files

These may, for example, include additional salinity measurements as .txt files, netcdf files, etc. They will be stored on one of PANGAEA's servers and can be accessed via a link to the data publication.

Further Information

Cruise Label

The [Cruise] Label usually includes [ship]number/leg (e.g.: MSM88/1). Please provide further information on the cruise (synonyms: campaign, expedition, leg) as described in https://wiki.pangaea.de/wiki/Campaign. You may also check the overview table of campaigns and the existing labels.

Event label(s)

The Event Label(s) should be part of each data submission. Event labels equal the station labels and provide meta-information for the data. An Event Label consists of the cruise label and the station ending: [ship]number/leg_station (e.g.: HE549_10-1).

Device /Sensor

Information on the device used for measuring should also be provided, so it can be linked to the measured parameters.

Processed Data

Example of a CTD Data Publication

Physical oceanography during RV MARIA S. MERIAN cruise MSM95: https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.943220.

File name

If CTD profiles are provided as individual data files, please name them after their events.

File Formats

Possible file formats include .txt, .tab, .csv, .xlsx . The encoding is preferably UTF-8.


Please do not include any header except column names. The decimal separator should be "." and the number of decimals should always reflect the measurement precision. Not available numbers are displayed as blanks in PANGAEA. Preferably, the submitted data contains blanks. Alternatives such as "NaN", "NA" are acceptable in the data table.

Parameters of the Data Table (example)

This table gives an overview on the parameter names and specifications as they will appear on the web and in the download file of the data. If possible, these names should be included in the submission data table. Also the format and unit of data should be submitted as displayed here. The methods will be included in the data publication by the data editor as specified in the submitted meta-information.

Parameter Name Format Unit Example Method Comment
Event label HE549_10-1
DATE/TIME yyyy-MM-ddTHH:mm:ss 2020-03-19T19:24:11
LATITUDE decimal 53.840
LONGITUDE decimal 8.089
Depth, water m 2.0
Pressure, water dbar 2.0 CTD, SEA-BIRD SBE 911plus, SN 1015
Temperature, water °C 6.9138 CTD, SEA-BIRD SBE 911plus, SN 1015 ITS-90
Conductivity mS/cm 48.471 CTD, SEA-BIRD SBE 911plus, SN 1015
Salinity 35.6154 CTD, SEA-BIRD SBE 911plus, SN 1015 PSU, corrected
Temperature, water, potential °C 19.8085 Calculated ITS-90
Density, sigma-theta (0) kg/m3 25.2818 Calculated
Oxygen µmol/l 238.581 CTD, SEA-BIRD SBE 911plus, SN 1015 calibrated based on Winkler titration
Oxygen saturation % 103.44 CTD, SEA-BIRD SBE 911plus, SN 1015 calibrated based on Winkler titration
Attenuation, optical beam transmission arbitrary units 82.49 CTD, SEA-BIRD SBE 911plus, SN 101
Fluorometer arbitrary units 0.13 CTD, SEA-BIRD SBE 911plus, SN 101
Number of observations # 1

Note: If Quality Flags are used, the flagging code needs to be explained and will be archived in the parameter comment.

This template may help for preparation of your data file: template

Here a few infos on Density in water:

Density = 1027.1234 kg/m³

Sigma = Density - 1000 = 27.1234 kg/m³

Density depends on pressure, temperature and salt content: Density = f(P,T,S)

As a rule, one considers the density (or sigma) and sets P = 0 and denotes this as sigma-theta.

If the potential temperature (theta) is used instead of the in-situ temperature T, then the result is the potential density or sigma-theta.

Density in situ ( Note: "Density, mass density [kg/m³]" in 4D) - should always have values around 1000 (e.g. 1027)

Density, potential [kg/m³] should also always have values around 1000 (e.g. 1027)

Density sigma-theta [kg/m³] should always have lower tens values, e.g. around 27

Density, sigma, in situ [kg/m³] should also have lower tens values, e.g. around 27

Further information on parameters: https://wiki.pangaea.de/wiki/Parameter.

Raw Data

Example of a CTD Data Publication

Raw data of physical oceanography during RV MARIA S. MERIAN cruise MSM97/2. PANGAEA: https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.940519.

Data files

Raw CTD data contains a collection of files including data files, configuration files, bottle position information files, etc. Please provide all files and a description of the file content. The information on the content will be listed under "file content" in the data table as seen in this example.